Moving charges in electric and magnetic fields notes

Moving charges in Electric and Magnetic fields

Magnetic flux:

    The total number of magnetic field lines of force passing through a closed surface are called magnetic flux

   It is denoted by ΦB        

   Unit:  weber


Intensity of the magnetic field (H):

    Intensity of the magnetic field at a point in a magnetic field is the force experienced by one unit north pole paced at that point.

   Unit:  A/m



Magnetic induction or Magnetic flux density (B):

    The number of magnetic field lines of force passing through a unit area is called magnetic induction or magnetic flux density.

   Magnetic induction  B =  ΦB/A

     Unit:  weber/m2 or tesla  or  gauss (in CGS)


Force on a charged particle in an electric field


According to the Intensity of electric field definition, the intensity of the electric field (E) at a point in an electric field is the force experienced by a unit positive charge (q) placed at that point.

                                  E = F/q    

       

                           So,  F = Eq

Note:

   Force on a charged particle depends upon the magnitude of the charge and intensity of electric field.

   The direction of the force on the charge is along the direction of the electric field.


Force on a charged particle in a magnetic field


The force on a charge (q) in the magnetic field (B) moving with a velocity (v) is

                     F = q (v x B)  =  q v B sinϴ

      Where ϴ is the angle between the direction of motion and magnetic field

Note: Force on the charged particle depends upon

• magnitude of charge
• velocity of the charge
• magnitude of the magnetic induction

• Angle between the direction of velocity and magnetic field


Analysis of force on the charged particle in the electric field.


1.The force on a charge q in an electric field E is

                  F = Eq

2. The direction of the electric force is always in the direction of the electric field.

3. A stationary charged particle in an electric field experiences a force

4. The electric force is velocity independent

5. Work is done by the force acting on the charged particle

6. When a charged particle enters the electric field in a direction perpendicular to the field, its path is parabolic

7. The Electric force is independent of the angle between the direction of velocity and electric field

8. Force on the charged particle is the same even though the charge is moving in the direction of the electric field or moving in the opposite direction of electric field

9. No change in the force and continue its parabolic path if the charged particle enters in the electric field in the direction other than perpendicular to the field



Analysis of force on the charged particle in the magnetic field:


1.The force on a charge q in the magnetic field B is

                 F = q v B sin ϴ

2. The direction of magnetic force is always perpendicular to both the magnetic field B and velocity v

3. A stationary charged particle in magnetic field experiences no force

4. The magnetic force depends on both the magnitude and direction of the velocity of charged particle

5. Work done by the force acting on the charged particle is zero

6. When a charged particle enters a magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the field, it takes a circular path

7. The magnetic force depends upon angle between the direction of velocity and the magnetic field

8. Force on the charged particle is zero if the charged particle is moving in the direction of the magnetic field or moving in the opposite direction of the magnetic field

9. When the charged particle enters a magnetic field in a direction other than perpendicular, its path is a helix.


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