The disturbance created in medium is called wave. These waves are different types. Those are
1) Mechanical waves:  The waves which require a material medium for their propagation are called mechanical waves.  
    Eg: Sound waves, water waves, etc.,
2) Electromagnetic waves:  The waves which don't require a material medium for their propagation are called electromagnetic waves.  Eg: Light waves
3) Matter waves: Every moving particles are associated with waves are called matter waves irrespective of its charge. 

Transverse Waves:  A wave in which the particles of the medium  vibrate perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave is called a transverse wave.
     Eg: Light waves, ripples in water, etc.,
Longitudinal Waves:  A wave in which the particles of the medium  vibrate in the direction of propagation of wave is called a transverse wave.
     Eg: Sound waves

Polar Vectors:
       Vectors which have a starting point or a point of application are called polar vectors.
          Eg: Force, velocity, displacement, etc

Axial Vectors:

       Vectors which represent the rotational effect and acts along the axis of rotation are called Axial vectors.
     Eg: Angular velocity, torque, angular momentum, ect.,

Null vector:  
     A vector with zero magnitude and having an arbitrary direction is called a null vector.

Collinear Vectors:
     The two or more vectors are said to be collinear, when they act along the same lines or parallel lines.

Coplanar Vectors:

     The two or more vectors are said to be coplanar if the vectors lying in the same plane.

         Redistribution of momentum of particles happen is said to be collision.

         In a collision, linear momentum and kinetic energy both are conserved then such collision is said to be elastic collision.
     Eg: Collision between fundamental particles.
Inelastic Collision:
        In a collision, linear momentum conserved but kinetic energy is not conserved then such collision is said to be elastic collision.
     Eg: Collision between heavy massive particles.
Coefficient of restitution:   It is defined as the ration between relative velocity of separation after collision to the relative velocity of collision before collision.

                                       ( v2 - v1)
                         e  =       --------------------

                                       (u1 - u2)

Line of Impact: 
     At the time of collision between two bodies there is a contact during collision. If a line drawn perpendicular to the common tangent at the point of contact, the line is called line of impact.

One dimensional collision or Direct impact:
       Before and after collision, the colliding bodies centers of mass are traveling along the line of impact then that collision is said to be one dimensional collision.

Oblique Impact:   When the centers of mass of the colliding bodies are not moving along the line of impact, then the impact is called as oblique impact.

               Any device which coverts one form of energy into another form is called transducer.

     A transmitter is a device that converts the message signal into a form, suitable for transmission and transmits it through a suitable communication channel. 

    Which extracts the desired message signals from the received signals at the output.

POLARISING ANGLE: An incident angle at which reflected light is completely plane polarized is called polarising angel or angle of polarisation.

REFRACTIVE INDEX: The ratio between velocity of light in vacuum or air and velocity of light in medium is called refractive index of that material.

              When two light waves superimpose then alternative bright and dark fringes are formed in the region of superimpose.

                    The modification of intensity in the region of superimpose. 

Focal point: (Focus point)
               When light rays incident on a lens parallel to the principle axis of a lens, focus at a point. the point is called focus point or focal point.

Focal length:  Distance between focal point and optical center of a lens is called focal length. 

Optical power:(Refracting power)
      Reciprocal of the focal length is called optical power. SI units are diopter or 1/meter.

Lens antenna:
    A microwave aerial with an electronic focusing arrangement placed in front of the radiator in order to produce a desired shape and direction in the radiated beam.

Lines of Force in Electric field:
        These are the imaginary lines drawn in electric field in which one unit test charge will move.

Electric Flux: 
          The number of electric lines of force is called electric flux.

Electric Field Intensity or Intensity of Electric Field:
     Intensity of Electric field at a point is defined as force experienced by one unit positive charge placed at that point.
       Number of lines of force passing per unit area is called Electric field Intensity.

      It is a point in electric field where intensity of electric field is zero.

Electric Dipole:
      A system of two equal and opposite charges separated by a small distance is called an electric dipole.

Dipole moment: 
     The product of magnitude of either charge and distance between the two charges of an electric dipole is called dipole moment. It gives the strength of the electric dipole. 
    It is a vector quantity, the direction along the dipole axis from the negative to the positive charge.


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